Legal Marriage Surveys in the U.S.
© August 22, 2010, Demian


The following polls are on legal marriage availability for same-sex couples, as well as on related attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.

Many pollsters have used the phrase “gay marriage” which is inaccurate and misleading. A better term would be “legal marriage for same-sex couples.”

When getting a marriage license, opposite-sex couples are not asked if they are straight. Their sexual orientation is not known. The same is true for legal marriages that are offered to same-sex couples. The marriage discrimination is based on the perceived biological sex of the couple, not their orientation.

Some polls express a prejudice by calling homosexuality a “lifestyle.” A lifestyle can be chosen, and is a manifestation of income and social standing. Homosexuality occurs throughout nature, and is not chosen. It is an orientation.

We do not include any Web-gathered surveys because they are not scientific in that they are self-selective, only available to a certain economic class, sample far too narrowly. Also, because one party could make multiple votes, and because the polls have been subject to program hacking, they have been proven to be grossly unreliable. Web surveys cannot be used to accurately measure public attitude, particularly on volatile issues.

In the wake of suits for legal marriage in Alaska, Hawaii and Vermont, many anti-marriage laws have been put in place by the U.S. Government as well as by a large number of states.
      [See our article: State Legislative Reactions to Suits for Same-Sex Marriage]

Successful court cases during the late 90s-2000s have driven Canada toward far greater equality for same-sex couples than in the U.S., including the availability of legal marriage.
      [Please see our article: Canada Offers Legal Marriage]

While the U.S. anti-gay laws — and right-wing, extremist theocrats — give the impression that it is the will of the people to express their terror of legal marriage for same-sex couples, the following polls reflect a different story. They show that there has been, through the years, growing support for the notion that same-sex couples deserve equal treatment.



United States Polls

———— 1989 ————

= Time/CNN
Conducted October 9-10, 1989

“Do you think marriages between homosexual
couples should be recognized by the law?”
   69% disapprove
   23% approve
    8% unsure

“Do you think homosexual couples should be
legally allowed to inherit each other“s property?”
   65% approve
   27% disapprove
    8% unsure

“Do you think homosexual couples should be
permitted to receive medical- and life-insurance
benefits from a partner“s policies?”
   54% approve
   37% disapprove
    9% unsure

“Do you think homosexual couples should be
permitted to adopt children?”
   75% disapprove
   17% approve
    8% unsure

1,000 adult Americans
from a telephone poll conducted by
Yankelovich Clancy Schulman
sampling error +/- 3%


= Time Magazine
“Should Gays Have Marriage Rights?”
by Walter Isaacson, November 20, 1989, pp 101-102

Legal marriage:
   69% disapprove
   23% approve
    8% unsure



———— 1991 ————


= Honolulu Star-Bulletin/KGNB-Ch.9
Conducted April 3-7, 1991
Released April 24, 1991
Conducted by Political Media Research
425 Hawaii voters

Legal marriage:
   49% against
   34% for
   17% not sure



———— 1992 ————


= Newsweek
Survey report

Legal marriage:
   58% disapprove
   35% approve
    7% unsure



———— 1993 ————


= Honolulu Star-Bulletin
Conducted June 4-7, 1993
Released June 19, 1993
Conducted by Political Media Research
419 Hawaii voters

Legal marriage:
   61% against
   30% for
    9% not sure


= Honolulu Star-Bulletin
Conducted October 21-23, 1993
Released November 11, 1993
Conducted by Political Media Research,
423 Hawaii voters

Legal marriage:
   58% against
   31% for
   11% not sure



———— 1994 ————


= Honolulu Advertiser/KHON-Ch.2
Conducted February 12-17, 1994
Released February 28, 1994
Conducted by SMS Research/Marketing Services, Inc.
605 Hawaii residents

Legal marriage:
   67% against
   25% for
    8% not sure


= Time Magazine
Released June 27, 1994
Conducted by Yankelovich Partners Inc.
800 adults by telephone

Legal marriage:
   64% against
   31% for


= Honolulu Advertiser/KHON-Ch.2
Conducted July 19-29, 1994,
Released August 4, 1994
Conducted by SMS Research/Marketing Services, Inc.
800 Hawaii residents

Legal marriage:
   68% against
   24% for
    8% not sure/refused



———— 1995 ————


= EPIC-MRA-Mitchell Research Poll, Lansing, Mich.
Conducted June 21-26, 1995
Released July 1995
1,000 voters

Legal marriage:
   63% against
   33% for



———— 1996 ————


= Pew Research Center for the People and the Press
Released in the summer 1996

Legal marriage:

   Breakdown:
      White evangelical Protestants:
         13% pro legal marriage
      Black Christians:
         25% pro
      White non-evangelical Protestants:
         27% pro
      White Roman Catholic:
         31% pro


= California Field Poll
Conducted June 10-16, 1996
Released June 28, 1996
1,024 adults

Legal Marriage:
   57% con
   35% pro

   Breakdown:
      Democrats:
         45% con
         44% pro
      Republicans:
         72% con
         22% pro
      Bay Area:
         48% con
         44% pro


= Associated Press
Conducted June 14-18, 1996
Released July 1, 1996
Conducted by ICR Survey Research Group, Media, Penn.
1,019 adults

Legal Marriage:
   57% con
   30% pro

   Breakdown:
      Men:
         66% con
      Women:
         49% con
      Younger than 45:
         less than 50% pro
         less than 50% con
      Younger than 35:
         47% con
         44% pro


= Harris Poll
Conducted July 15-21, 1996
Released July 18, 1996
1,004 adults by telephone

Legal marriage for female couples:
   63% con
   25% no strong feelings
   11% pro
Legal marriage for male couples:
   64% con
   24% no strong feelings
   10% pro



———— 1996 ————


= Honolulu Advertiser
Conducted by SMS Research/Marketing Services, Inc.
Released August 8, 1996
501 Hawaii residents by telephone

Legal marriage:
   72% against
   19% pro (it was 20% in February 1996)
    9% not sure


= WDAF-TV
WDAF-TV, 3030 Summit St., Kansas City, MO 64108
Released November 1996
Telephone survey

Legal marriage:
   58% should be legally recognized



———— 1997 ————


= Field Institute Poll
Conducted February 11-17, 1997
1,045 adult Californians by telephone
Margin of error of 4.5%

Legal Marriage
   56% disapprove of same-sex marriages
   38% approve

   Breakdown:
      Protestants:
         65% oppose same-sex marriage
      Catholics:
         61% oppose
      Voters with no religious affiliation:
         66% approve of same-sex marriages

Legal recognition of same-sex marriages form other states:
   49% oppose 
   43% in favor of recognition

   Breakdown:
      Democrats:
         52% approve
         41% disapprove
      Republicans:
         62% oppose
         31% approve

Allow cohabiting couples such rights as hospital visitation,
medical power of attorney and conservatorship:
   67% support

Support allowing domestic partners to receive such benefits as
pensions, health coverage, family leave and death benefits:
   59% support

   Breakdown:
      Democrats:
         72% support
      Republicans:
         64% support

Among religious groups, Protestants and Catholics expressed
considerably more negative views of such measures than members
of other religions or people with no religious preference.


= Human Rights Campaign
Conducted mid-February 1997
Conducted by Lake Research, Inc.
443 likely New Hampshire Republican voters

49% say legal same-sex marriage makes no difference
32% are somewhat or much less supportive
   of a candidate who signed a pledge opposing “gay marriage”
18% are much more supportive of a candidate
   who signed a pledge opposing “gay marriage”
62% strongly disapprove or feel it is wrong to
   use gays to score political points
20% were glad the politicians were raising the
   anti-marriage issue



———— 1998 ————


= Anchorage Daily News
“Polls split on gay marriages” by Liz Ruskin,
April 16, 1998

Poll by Dittman Research (Anchorage)
558 randomly selected Alaska adults in March 1998
   65% against legal same-sex marriage
   66% said they’d vote for a ballot measure to
      constitutionally define marriage only between men and women.

Poll by Craciun and Associates
407 Anchorage voters
   51% would NOT vote for constitutionally
      restrictive amendment
   38% would support it.


= Detroit free Press
“Most Michigan Residents Oppose Same-Sex Marriages”
by Lekan Oguntoyinbo, April 16, 1998
Conducted by EPIC/MRA (Lansing)

66% - same-sex marriage shouldn’t be legalized
59% - Michigan shouldn’t recognize a same-sex
   marriage that takes place in another state
   (Michigan lawmakers banned same-sex marriage in 1996)
59% oppose state recognition of same-sex
   partnerships to receive health care and other benefits


= Rutland Herald and Barre-Montpelier Times Argus
Released August 1998

58% said same-sex marriages should not
   be recognized in Vermont
30% said they should


= Honolulu Star-Bulletin
“Same-Sex Marriage Losing Big” by Mike Yuen,
Released August 14, 1998
417-421 registered voters

1993, June
   61% against
   30% for
    8% unsure

1994, February
   58% against
   32% for
   10% unsure

1996, March
   74% against
   21% for
    6% unsure

1997, February
   70% against
   20% for
   10% unsure

1998, August
   63% against legal marriage
   24% for legal marriage
   13% unsure


= Honolulu Advertiser
“Same-Sex Foes Waver at Ballot Box” by William Kresnak
Released September 18, 1998
Conducted by Advertiser/Channel 2 News
Hawaii voters

Marriage
   72% oppose same-sex marriage
   18% for same-sex marriage
   10 unsure/no answer

Constitutional change banning marriage
   52% support the state constitution changed giving the
      Legislature the power to reserve marriage for opposite-sex couples
   40% oppose the constitutional change
    8% unsure


= San Francisco Chronicle
“Petitions Seek Vote on Banning Gay Marriages”
by Elaine Herscher, Sept.22, 1998
Conducted March 1997
Poll of Californians

66% favor domestic partner benefits for
   lesbians and gay men
56% objected to any law allowing lesbian
   or gay partners to wed


= AP report
“Poll Shows Support for Gay Marriage Ban,
Medical Marijuana” by Paul Queary
Conducted by Dittman Research (Anchorage)
Released September 28, 1998
544 likely voters in Alaskan in October 1998

61% would vote for constitutional amendment
   banning same-sex marriage
34 against such an amendment


= Honolulu Advertiser
“Poll Says Same-Sex Opponents Gaining”
by Jean Christensen
October 26, 1998

Conducted by Ward Research in September 1998
Telephone poll
   52% wanted to change the constitution
      to allow a ban on “gay” marriage
   40% opposed the constitutional change 
    8% unsure

Conducted by Ward Research in October 1998
480 likely Hawaii voters in telephone poll
   56% wanted to change the constitution
      to allow a ban on “gay” marriage
   32% oppose the constitutional change
   12% unsure



———— 1999 ————


= Vermont Public Radio
Conducted by Macro International,
Reported in the Boston Globe, January 28, 1999
403 Vermont citizens interviewed

48% opposed to same-sex marriage
43% in favor of same-sex marriage
7% no opinion


= Field Institute Poll
Conducted March 3-14, 1999
Released March 31, 1999
Reported in the San Francisco Chronicle, April 1, 1999
718 registered voters in California by telephone

Do you favor an initiative on the California March 2000 ballot
prohibiting the state from recognizing same-sex marriages?
   55% favored 
   39% against
    6% no opinion

   Breakdown:
      Protestant:
         66% favored the initiative
      Catholic:
         60% approved
      No religious affiliation:
         63% OPPOSED the initiative
         30% favored the initiative

Only 20% of voters interviewed said they had
seen or heard anything about the initiative.


= Vermont Public Radio
“Vermont Considers Gay Marriage” by David Snyder
Reported in the Christian Broadcasting Network, April 5, 1999

53% opposed to same-sex marriage


= Research 2000, Bethesda, Maryland
Conducted for “three media organizations,”
May 27-May 29, 1999
Reported in the Washington Blade, June 11, 1999
810 California voters by telephone

54% backed a law prohibiting state recognition of same-sex marriages
38% opposed
 8% undecided

An anti-gay, anti-marriage ban initiative (Prop 22) went
before California voters March 2000 and failed.


= Decision Research (San Diego & D.C.)
Conducted for the Horizons Foundation, San Francisco
Horizons is helping finance opposition to Prop 22
Conducted April 17-22, 1999
Reported in the San Francisco Chronicle, June 23, 1999
1,200 likely voters

“The ‘Definition of Marriage’ Act says that only marriage
between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.
Would you vote for it?”:
   55% yes
   39% no
    1% lean yes
    1% lean no
    4% still undecided

Other findings:

“Should civil rights be denied based on sexual orientation?”
   63% strongly oppose discrimination
   18% somewhat oppose discrimination

“Is there discrimination against lesbians and gay men?”
   51% agreed
   41% disagreed

“Gay and lesbian couples who are loving andcaring can be as good
at parenting as other parents.”
   34% strongly agree
   24% somewhat agree
    5% don’t know
   12% somewhat disagree
   26% strongly disagree

4% said they were gay, lesbian or bisexual
4% declined to state their sexual orientation

An anti-gay, marriage ban initiative (Prop 22) went
before California voters in March 2000 and failed.


= Rutland Herald, Barre-Montpelier Times Argus, WCAX-TV poll
Conducted October 29-31, 1999
Released November 4, 1999
621 registered voters by telephone

47% disapproved of same-sex legal
    marriage in Vermont
40% approved



———— 2000 ————


= Rutland Herald, Times Argus and WCAX TV poll
Conducted January 18-21, 2000
Released January 25, 2000
Conducted by Research 2000 of Rockville, Maryland
623 registered Vermont voters by telephone

“The Vermont Supreme Court ruled in December that
same-sex couples were entitled to the same legal
benefits and protections now extended to married
couples. Do you agree or disagree with the
court’s ruling?”
                  All | Men | Women
Strongly Agree     6%    3%    9%
Agree             32%   30%   34%
Disagree          34%   39%   30%
Strongly Disagree 18%   23%   13%
Not Sure          10%    5%   14%

“The court also ruled that the Legislature had to
decided how to guarantee these legal benefits and
protections for same-sex couples. Which of the
following would you like the Legislature to enact
when it comes to deciding on how to guarantee legal
benefits and protections for same-sex couples?”
                   All | Men | Women
Allow Benefits and obligations of marriage but do not recognize
same-sex marriages
                   28%   19%   36%
Change existing marriage laws to include same-sex couples
                   13%    5%   20%
Neither/Not Sure   59%   76%   44%

“Would you favor or oppose overturning the
Supreme Court’s decision by passage of an
amendment to the Vermont Constitution that would
define marriage as a union between
one man and one woman?”
         All | Men | Women
Favor    49%   54%   45%
Oppose   44%   39%   47%
Not Sure  7%    7%    8%

   Breakdown:
      Sex:
         Men 310 (50%)
         Women 313 (50%)
      Geographic:
         Northern 401 (64%)
         Southern 222 (36%)


= Examiner/KTVU poll
Conducted January 21 through 24, 2000
Released January 28, 2000
Conducted by Research 2000 of Rockville, Maryland
644 California likely March primary voters

Asked if respondent would favor Proposition 22
(the “Knight Initiative,” a measure
to limit marriages:
   54% of voters support 
   38% oppose it
    8% undecided

The results are little-changed from the
Examiner/KTVU poll in November 1999.


= Harris Poll
Conducted January 6-10, 2000
Released February 2, 2000
1,010 adults nationwide

57% disapproved of legalizing marriage
   between two men
55% rejected it for women
15% approved it for two men
16% supported it for two women
about 25% did not feel strongly
2-to-4% did not know how they felt or refused to respond

The numbers approving of same-sex marriage were up
about 50% from four years ago, when only
11% supported it for women and 10% for men.

55% disapproved of adoption by female couples
57% disapproved of adoption by male couples
22% approved of adoption by female couples
21% approved of adoption by male couples

Almost 20% said they did not feel strongly
about the issue.

56% favored expanding current laws banning
   discrimination based on race, age, disability,
   religion and gender to gay men and women.
34% said they opposed such legislation
11% said they did not know or refused to answer

Two years ago 52% favored legislation protecting
gay people from discrimination, while 41% opposed it.
Federal law does not bar employers from firing workers, or
landlords from refusing to rent to people because they are gay
and the majority of states do not ban anti-gay discrimination.

52% thought homosexuality stemmed from
   “what you learn and experience’”
35% said it was genetic
   (This marked a change from 65% learned Vs.
   29% genetic in 1995.) Accordingly 46
  % said they felt sexual orientation
   “can be changed through will power,
   therapy or religious conviction,”)
44% said it could not be changed
   (Mainstream medical and psychiatric professional
   organizations have concluded that sexual
   orientation is innate and cannot be changed,
   and have opposed attempts to “convert”
   gay people to heterosexuality as
   misguided and harmful.)

48% said they have either close personal
friends or relatives who are gay.


= Research 2000 of Rockville, Md.
Conducted April 26-27, 2000 for The Rutland Herald,
The Barre-Montpelier Times Argus,
and WCAX Channel 3 News
513 Vermont registered voters

Do you approve of the new Civil Union law?
   52% don’t approve
   43% support it
   16% strong disapproval
   9% strongly approved

   Breakdown:
      Women:
         47% approved
         46% disapproved
         14% strongly disapproved
         12% strongly approved
      Men:
         59% disapproved
         38% approved of the bill
         18% strongly disapproved
      60 and older:
         59% disapproved
         35% approved
      18-29 years old:
         51% approved or strongly approved

How important is the passage of the civil unions bill in
determining their vote for governor?
   51% - won’t have much weight.
   33% - not very important
   24% - it will be important
   19% - somewhat important
   18% - not affect their vote at all
    5% - they didn’t know

Among those who disapproved:
Would passage of the bill effect your vote for governor?
   44% little or no effect
   31% a very, or somewhat, important factor

Are you more or less likely to vote for a candidate for
governor who supported the civil unions bill?
   56% - would have no effect on their vote
   22% - were unsure
   14% - less likely to vote for someone who supported the bill
    8% - more likely to vote for someone who supported the bill

Is the bill important in voting for members of the Legislature?
   30% - not very important
   28% - weren’t sure
   27% - it would be important
   21%  - somewhat important
   15% - it would not be a factor at all
    6% - it would be very important

Among those who disapproved of the civil unions bill
   34% said it would be a very, or somewhat, important factor in
      determining their vote for legislative candidates

Among those who disapprove of civil unions,
   37% said passage of the bill would have
      little or no effect on their votes for the Legislature

Would a candidate’s support for civil unions influence
your vote in house and senate elections?
   53% - would have no effect on their voting
   25% - were unsure
   15% - less likely to vote for a supporter of union law
    7% - were more likely to vote for a supporter

How should a legislator vote when at odds with the
majority of his or her constituents?
   37% - legislators should do what they think is right
   34% - should vote with the majority of constituents
   29% were unsure

Among those who disapproved of the civil unions:
   40% said lawmakers should vote with their constituents
   40% said lawmakers should do what they believed was right

How much weight should legislators give to the views
of religious leaders in matters of public policy?
   50% - religious views should be given little or no consideration
   44% - such consideration was not very important
   almost 40% - should be taken into account
   32% - it was important
    7% - it was very important
    6% - not important at all

Do you support defining marriage in the Vermont Constitution?
   51% - support the idea
   42% - oppose the idea

Would you support allowing same-sex couples to legally
marry “sometime in the future?”
   51% - would not approve
   40% - would like to see such marriages someday

Do you know or work with someone who is gay or lesbian?
   42% - no
   41% - yes
   17% - declined to answer

Among those who knew gay men or lesbians:
   48% approved of the civil unions bill
   45% disapproved

Among those without gay acquaintances
   59% disapproved
   38% approved of the bill

Is sexual orientation was a matter of choice or biology?
   43% - believed it was a matter of choice
   38% - believed people were born heterosexual or homosexual
   19% were unsure

   Breakdown:
         40% of women - it was biology
         40% of women - it was choice
         47% of men - it was choice
         38% of men - it was biology


= Associated Press, ICR of Media, Pennsylvania
Conducted May 17-21, 2000
Released May 31, 2000
1,012 adults from all states except Alaska and Hawaii by telephone
Splitting the sample increased the margin of error
beyond the estimated +-3% for the rest of the poll.

Half were asked:
   “In general, do you think gays and lesbians should
   or should not be allowed to be legally married?”:
      51% opposed
      34% approved
      11% don’t know
       3% refused to answer

The other half were asked:
   “In general, do you think gays and lesbians should
   or should not be allowed to form a domestic
   partnership that would give the same-sex couple the
   same rights and benefits as opposite sex marriage?”:
      46% opposed
      41% approved
      11% don’t know
      3% refused to answer

Providing health insurance coverage to gay partners:
   53% favor
   37% oppose
    7% don’t know
    3% refused to answer

Providing Social Security benefits to gay partners:
   50% favor
   41% oppose
    6% don’t know
    3% refused to answer

Providing inheritance rights to gay partners:
   56% favor
   32% oppose
    9% don’t know
    3% refused to answer

The following were in support of same-sex marriage:
   40% women
   25% men

   40% Democrats
   20% Republicans

   54% for ages 18 -34
   14% for those over 65

Is sexual orientation is inborn:
   46% homosexuality is chosen
   30% homosexuality is inborn
   20% don’t know
    4% refused to answer

Among those who view orientation as inborn:
   59% same-sex couples should be allowed to marry

Among those who believe homosexual orientation is a choice:
   69% opposed same-sex marriage


= Las Vegas Review-Journal
Conducted June 12-15, 2000
Released June 17, 2000
Conducted by Mason-Dixon Polling & Research, Inc.
637 Nevada citizens by telephone who vote regularly in state elections

Question: Currently, a petition is being circulated to put an initiative
on the state ballot in November that would amend the Nevada Constitution
to provide that “only a marriage between a male and a female person shall
be recognized and given effect in the state.” If this initiative were on
the ballot and you were voting today, would you vote:
- “YES,” to approve this proposed amendment, OR
- “NO,” to defeat this proposed amendment?
   61% yes
   30% no
    9% undecided

   Breakdown:
      Sex:
         Men:
            64% yes
            29% no
             7% undecided
         Women:
            58% yes
            31% no
            11% undecided
      Geographic:
         Clark County:
            57% yes
            34% no
             9% undecided
         Washoe County:
            64% yes
            27% no
             9% undecided
         Rural:
            69% yes
            24% no
             7% undecided


= Who’s Who Among American High School Students
Released November 29, 2000
2,804 students ages 16-18 who were maintaining grade averages
of at least 3.0, with 97% planning to go on to college.

54% believe same-sex couples should be allowed to marry

The same survey claimed that students admitted to being biased
against homosexuals 38% (down 10% from their 1998
survey) admitting to personal bias against “homosexuals”
but majorities supporting a range of employment opportunities
for them, as well as marriage for gay and lesbian couples.

Bias against other groups include:
   15% against Hispanics
   13% against African Americans
    8% against Asian Americans
    4% against Caucasians
    5% against Jews

Among those respondents:
   4.8% of the men
   3.6% of the women
   identified themselves as “bisexual,”, “homosexual,”, or “uncertain.”



———— 2001 ————


= Higher Education Research Institute
University of California, Los Angeles
Conducted in 2000
Released by the Chronicle of Higher Education, January 26, 2001
269,413 students at 434 baccalaureate colleges and universities

56% agreed that “same-sex couples should have
the right to legal marital status.”

35th annual freshman survey, conducted during freshman
orientation and the first week of classes, reflecting
students’ experiences in their last year of high
school, as well as expectations for college.


= Gallup Organization, Princeton, N.J.
“American Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Continue to Become More Tolerant”
Conducted May 10-14, 2001
Released June 4, 2001
1,012 U.S. adults, 18 years and older, by telephone
+-3% error possibility

“Would you favor or oppose a law that would allow homosexual
couples to legally form civil unions, giving them some of the legal
rights of married couples?”
   52% oppose
   44% favor
    4% had no opinion

Compare to last year’s
responses on October 25-28, 2000
   54% oppose
   42% favor
   4% had no opinion


= Hamilton College, Clinton, New York
Professor Dennis Gilbert’s survey research class designed the poll
Conducted by Zogby International, March 16-20, 2001
Released in August 2001
1,003 high school seniors

66% said gay marriages should be legal

Other related findings:
   68% said gay couples should be allowed to adopt children
   88% supported hate crimes legislation
   79% favored anti-discrimination
      laws protecting gay people
   31.5% said they would be comfortable at
      a party with both gay and straight couples

Despite the apparent overwhelming support for gay men
and lesbians, the survey found U.S. high schools
remain a largely hostile environment for gay students,
with nearly half having witnessed students being
called “faggot,” “homo” or “dyke” to their face.  Some
88% said the phrase “that’s so gay” is used to
describe something that is disliked.



———— 2002 ————


= The Fall 2001 Freshmen Survey
Higher Education Research Institute
Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, UCLA
Released January 28, 2002
411,970 entering freshmen at 704 of the nation’s higher education
institutions. Data culled from 281,064 of those students at 421
baccalaureate institutions have been statistically adjusted to be
representative of the 1.2 million freshmen entering four-year colleges
and universities as first-time, full-time students in the fall of 2001.

“Same-sex couples should have the right to legal marital status”
   57.9% agreed
[56% agreed in 2000]
[50.9% agreed in 1997]

Students who “advocated laws prohibiting homosexual relationships”
   24.9% 
[27.2% in 2000]
[50.4% in 1987]

In its 36th year, the UCLA Survey is the nation’s longest-standing
and most comprehensive assessment of student attitudes and plans.
Conducted in association with the American Council on Education,
the survey serves as a resource for higher education researchers
throughout the world.



———— 2003 ————


= Boston Globe/WBZ-TV
Conducted March 2003
Released April 2003
400 Massachusetts residents

Do you support same-sex marriage:
   50% yes
   44% no


= Gallup Poll
Conducted May 5-7, 2003
1,005 telephone national sample of adults
Margin of error +-three%

Do you favor a law that would “allow homosexual couples to
legally form civil unions, giving them some of the legal rights
of married couples?”:
   49% approve
   49% disapprove

Should “homosexual” couples have the same legal rights
as married “heterosexual” couples regarding health care
benefits and Social Security survivor benefits?
   62% should
   35% should not
   3% no opinion

Should gay men and lesbians have equal rights for job opportunities?
   88% approve (56% in 1977)
    9% disapprove
    1% no opinion

Is homosexuality an acceptable “alternative lifestyle?”
[Note: Bad word choice.
“Lifestyle” is one’s income or class, not an orientation.]
   54% approve
   43% disapprove

Is homosexuality something a person is born with, or
due to factors such as upbringing or environment?
   44% due to environment
   38% due to genetics
   11% due to environment and genetics
    2% neither

Should homosexual relations between consenting adults be legal?
   60% should be legal
   35% should not be legal
    5% no opinion

The survey shows that concept of legal acceptance for same-sex
relationships has reached the 60% level, which is up from
52% in 2002, and up from 43% when Gallup
first began asking about homosexuality in 1977.


= University of New Hampshire Survey Center
Conducted April 11-22, 2003
Reported May 2003
The portion dealing with same-sex marriage was commissioned
by the New Hampshire Freedom to Marry Coalition
509 New Hampshire adults
(part of the regularly conducted Granite State Poll)
Margin of error +/- 4.4%

Do you favor  “a law that will allow the state to
issue civil marriage licenses to gay and lesbian couples?”
   54% agree
   42% oppose

The poll also found that:

84% personally know someone who is gay, lesbian or bisexual

71% agree that “a gay or lesbian person can
fall in love with someone of the same sex in the same
way that opposite-sex couples fall in love.”

Additionally, the poll found broad support for extending many of the
specific benefits of marriage to same-sex couples:

88% agree that same-sex couples should have
the same hospital visitation rights as close relatives

85% agree that a same-sex spouse should be
allowed to make medical decisions
for an incapacitated partner

78% agree that same-sex couples should be
allowed family medical leave time from work
to care for an ill spouse

70% agree that same-sex couples should have
automatic inheritance rights without inheritance taxes

68% agree that same-sex couples should have
the same pension and social security
benefits as married couples

Younger respondents were much more likely than older
respondents to support same-sex marriage legislation:

ages 17-29:
   70% support

ages over 70:
   64% opposed

Age     Support | Oppose | Undecided
  18-29    70       28       3
  30-39    65       35       0
  40-49    56       38       6
  50-59    50       45       5
  60-69    41       51       8
  70+      32       64       2

There were strong differences based on sex:

Women:
   65% support same-sex marriage
   30% oppose

Men:
   43% support
   54% oppose

Married people were more likely to support same-sex marriage:
   50% support
   44% oppose

Protestants and Catholics were both evenly divided
with half supporting same-sex marriage and half opposing.


= Gallup Poll
Conducted on July 1, 2003
Reported in USA Today, July 2003
Reported in The Advocate, July 22, 2003

Should same-sex marriage, and all the rights and benefits, be recognized?
   55% no
   39% yes [Up from 27% in 1996]

   Breakdown:
      Approval of same-sex marriages by educational level:
         51% postgraduate
         44% college
         31% high school or less
      Approval by age level:
         61% 18-29
         37% 30-49
         22*% 65-older [*surmised from news reports]
      Approval by church-going level:
         57% seldom or never attend church
            (36% opposed)
         26*% attend church weekly [*surmised from news reports]
            (74% opposed)

More than half of those surveyed said a friend, relative or co-worker
had personally told them that he or she was gay; that’s more than
double the%age in 1985.
Nearly one-third said they had become more accepting of gay people
in recent years.
Just 8% said they had become less accepting.


= Pew Research Center for the People and the Press
Conducted June 24-July 8, 2003
Released July 2003
2,002 adults polled nationwide
Sampling error +/- 2.5%

53% opposed same-sex marriage
    (down from 65% in 1996)
38% support same-sex marriage
    (up from 27% in 1996)

The Pew report, focused on the role of religion in
politics, and found that white, mainline Protestants
and white Roman Catholics had become significantly
more accepting of same-sex marriage.

The report states: “But notably, the shift in favor of
gay marriage is seen in nearly every segment of
society with two significant exceptions -- white
evangelical Protestants and African Americans. While a
higher%age of white evangelicals (83%)
than blacks (64%) oppose legalizing gay
marriages, neither group has changed its views
significantly since 1996.”


= USA Today / CNN / Gallup Poll
“Poll shows backlash on gay issues” by Susan Page
[In recent weeks, the Supreme Court struck down a Texas
anti-sodomy law, a Canadian court allowed gay couples to marry
in Ontario and Wal-Mart, the USA’s largest private employer,
expanded anti-discrimination protection to gay workers.]
Released in USA Today, July 29, 2003
Sampling error +-3%

Should homosexual relations between consenting adults be legal:
   Combined two May 2003 polls:
      60% approve
      35% disapprove
   Combined two July 2003 polls:
      48% approve
      46% disapprove

   Breakdown:
      Among African Americans:
         May
            58% approve
         July
            36% approve
      Among whose who attended church almost every week:
         May
            61% approve
         July
            49% approve

Do you support state-recognized civil unions that would give gay
couples some of the legal rights of married opposite-sex couples:
   May 2003
      49% approve
      49% opposed
   June 2003
      57% approve
      40% opposed


= Zogby International
Conducted July 15-19, 2003
Released July 28, 2003
Poll commissioned by four New Jersey chapters of
Parents Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG)
Reported: Philadelphia Inquirer, July 29, 2003,
and in the Newark Star-Ledger, July 29, 2003
803 New Jersey likely voter adults by telephone
Margin of error +-3.6%

Should same-sex marriage be legalized:
   55% approve
   41% disapprove

   Breakdown:
      Geographic:
         South Jersey:
            60% approved
            35% disapprove
         North Jersey:
            53% approved
         Central New Jersey:
            52% approved
      Ethnicity:
         Hispanic:
            69% approve
         White:
            56% approve
            40% disapprove
         Black:
            61% disapprove
         Asian:
            65% disapprove
      Religion:
         Jew:
            69% approve
            28% disapprove
         Catholic:
            57% approve
            39% disapprove
      Sex:
         Women:
            58% approve
         Men:
            52% approve
      Age:
         18-to-29 years old:
            81% approve
         30-to-49:
            60% approve
         50-to-64:
            49% approve
         65-and-older:
            32% approve

The number of New Jerseyans who said they personally
knew someone who is gay, lesbian or bisexual:
   77% yes
   23% no


= Field Poll
Conducted August 10-13, 2003
Reported by the Associated Press, August 29, 2003
629 registered voters
Sampling error +-5.8%

Oppose same-sex marriage:
   age 65 and older
      75% of voters
   age 18-39
      46% of voters

Sex between consenting same-sex adults is “not at all wrong:”
    45%

Sex between consenting same-sex adults is “always wrong:”
    36%

Gay rights leaders are moving too fast:
    40%

The pace of change is about right:
    44% found

Same-sex couples in committed relationships should
enjoy family rights, such as hospital visitation and
medical powers of attorney:
   72% approve

Expanding rights to include financial benefits,
such as pensions and insurance coverage:
    61% favor

While half of California voters remain opposed to
same-sex marriages, but more than seven in 10 support
domestic partnership laws granting same-sex couples
legal recognition and rights.

Republicans and voters who identified themselves as
conservative were more than twice as likely as
Democrats and self-described liberals to disapprove of
same-sex marriage.

At the same time, the share of survey respondents who
think gay and lesbian couples should be allowed to
marry -- 42% -- is higher than at any time
since Field first asked the question in 1977, a trend
likely to continue as the population ages.


= Badger Poll
Conducted September 18, 2003
Conducted by the University of Wisconsin Survey Center
511 respondents

Moral opposition to adult homosexual relations:
   58% thought it “basically wrong”
      60 or older
         77% morally opposed
      30 or younger
         35% morally opposed

Law allowing same-sex couples to marry:
   60% disapprove

Civil Unions
   48% approve
   47% oppose

Homosexual relations in private should be legal:
   60%

Homosexuals should be allowed to teach
in elementary schools in Wisconsin:
   73% approve

Gay men and lesbians should be allowed in military service:
   87% approve

Knew a homosexual person:
   30 or younger
      80%
   60 or older
      63%


= USA Today/CNN/Gallup Poll
Conducted September 19-21, 2003
Released early October 2003
1,003 adults surveyed
Sampling error +-3%

50% said allowing same-sex marriage would
    either improve society or have no effect
48% said allowing same-sex unions
    “will change our society for the worse”

Support same-sex marriage:
    67% of those who are 18-29 years of age
    53% for 30-49-year-olds

“Allowing two people of the same sex to legally
marry will change our society for the worse.”
   For those who said they attended church weekly:
      67% agree
   For those who attended services at least once a month:
      51% agree


= Pew Research Center for People and the Press
Conducted October 15-19, 2003
Released November 18, 2003
Survey of 1,515 American adults
Sampling error +/- 3%

On legalizing same-sex marriage:
   59% oppose
   32% approve


= Decision Research
Conducted October 16-22, 2003
Released October 30, 2003
600 interviews of registered Massachusetts voters
Sampling error +/- 4.0%

Same-sex couples should have civil marriage:
   59% agree
   35% oppose

If civil marriage for same-sex couples were legal:
   77% find it acceptable
   22% would not

If the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled
that same-sex have a constitutional right to marry:
   64% I would agree
   34% I would oppose

On a Massachusetts Constitutional amendment
prohibiting civil marriage for same-sex couples:
   58% oppose
   38% agree

There are more important priorities for government
than passing a Constitutional Amendment
to ban same-sex marriage:
   79% agree
   20% disagree

Civil marriage for same-sex couples will
become legal in my lifetime:
   83% agree

Expanding marriage to same-sex couples is
not threatening the institution of marriage:
   62% agree
   35% disagree


= Merrimack College
Conducted early November 2003
491 Massachusetts adults
Sampling error +-5%

On allowing same-sex marriage or civil unions:
75% support either

Conducted in the days before and after the decision,
but the numbers didn’t shift after the ruling


= Decision Research
Conducted on October 22-27, 2003
Released November 18, 2003
600 telephone interviews of registered Connecticut voters
Sampling error +-4%

Same-sex couples should have the right to civil marriage:
   57% agree
   38% disagree

If civil marriage between same-sex couples were legal:
   77% find it acceptable
   22% would not

Should Connecticut recognize same-sex marriages from another state:
   59% agree
from another country, such as Canada:
   58%

On passing a law to prohibit recognition of civil
unions, domestic partnerships or any union other than
the marriage of one man and one woman?
   60% oppose

Government has no business intruding into the lives of
two people in a committed relationship by saying gays
and lesbians don’t have the right to marry the
person they choose:
   69% agree
   28% disagree

Do you expect civil marriage between same-sex couples
to become legal in your lifetime?
   81% agree


= Boston Globe/WBZ-TV
Released November 23, 2003
400 Massachusetts residents
Sampling error +-5%

On the ruling requiring Massachusetts
to offer legal marriage to same-sex couples:
   50% agreed with the ruling
   38% opposed it
   11% no opinion

   Breakdown:
      Among women
         55% agreed with the justices' decision
         35% disagreed
      Among men
         44% agreeing
         42% disagree

The court’s decision draws strong support from
Democrats, young and middle age people, registered
independents, and college graduates.

Catholics and Protestants were evenly divided.

On the proposed Massachusetts constitutional amendment:
   53% oppose
   36% in favor

Pass a civil union law providing some benefits
and rights for same-sex couples
   37% support
   44% oppose
   4% no opinion

16% want the governor and legislators to defy
the court’s ruling

23% want the governor and lawmakers to pass
legislation that would provide benefits and rights for
same-sex couples, but limit marriage to
opposite-sex couples

A state constitutional amendment would need to be approved by voters.
The earliest it could be on the ballot is November 2006 --
two-and-a-half years after the ruling.]


= Boston Sunday Herald
Released November 23, 2003
405 Massachusetts residents
Sampling error +-5%

On the ruling requiring Massachusetts
to offer legal marriage to same-sex couples:
   49% support legalizing same-sex marriage
   38% oppose it

On the proposed U.S. Constitutional amendment:
   54% opposed
   36% in favor



———— 2004 ————


= University of Massachusetts
Conducted March 30-April 4, 2004
463 residents (400 were registered voters)
Margin of error +-5%

Survey began the day after lawmakers approved an amendment to alter the
Massachusetts constitution to prohibit civil rights for same-sex couples
[See our article: Massachusetts Legal Marriage] 47% oppose the proposal 47% back it Given specific choices: 40% support same-sex marriage 28% support a ban on marriage that also provides for Civil Unions 17% strongly oppose legalizing same-sex marriage and Civil Unions 52% support Gov. Mitt Romney’s effort to ask the state Supreme Judicial Court to stay its ruling that legalized gay and lesbian marriages. Under the ruling, same-sex marriage will be legal in Massachusetts on May 17, 2004. 59% rate the Legislature’s job on the same-sex marriage issue not good or poor 35% rate the Legislature’s job as excellent or good = Wichita Eagle and KWCH-TV (Channel 12) Released April 26, 2004 Conducted by SurveyUSA Survey completed the week before April 26, 2004 Margin of error +-4.5% Support a ban on same-sex marriage 45% oppose about 43% approve = Los Angeles Times Conducted April 17-21, 2004 Released April 26, 2004 1,571 California adults Margin of error +-3% [bracket figures represent a March national poll, also conducted by the L.A. Times] Favor same-sex marriages: slightly less than 33% support [25% nationally] Breakdown: Among 18-29-year-olds nearly 50% support [44% nationally] Among 65 and older 20% support [10% nationally] Among Democrats 44% support [about 33%] Among Republicans 8% support [6% nationally wide] Among Christians (Catholics and non-Catholics) who attend religious services once a week or more 13% support Jews were more likely to support same-sex marriage, but sample numbers were too small to draw definitive conclusions. Favor Civil Unions: about 40% favor unions, but not marriage [slightly more than the national average] Breakdown: Among Republicans about 50% support unions [38% nationally] Among Christians (Catholics and non-Catholics) who attend religious services once a week or more 41% support unions Oppose both same-sex marriage and civil unions: 25% oppose both [34% oppose both nationally] Breakdown: 65 and older 25% oppose both [50% nationally] Among Christians (Catholics and non-Catholics) who attend religious services once a week or more 41% oppose both Is same-sex marriage “morally wrong?” more than 50% said “no” 40% said “yes” [a March national poll showed 48% said “yes”] Oppose the Federal Constitution marriage amendment: 51% oppose 43% favor [51% supported it nationally] Breakdown: Among Latino 52% support Among Democrats nearly 33% oppose [about 50% oppose] Among Republicans 67% favor [73% favor] Whites were more likely than African Americans or Latinos to support same-sex marriage = Field Poll Conducted May 18-to-24, 2004 Released June 3, 2004 745 registered voters Sampling error +-5.2% Legal Marriage 53-to-43% oppose legalizing same-sex marriage [numbers about the same for the past year In 1995, 55% opposed legalizing gay marriage In 1985, 62% opposed legalizing gay marriage] Large majorities of Republicans, older voters, evangelical Christians and Bush supporters opposed to legalizing same-sex marriage. A smaller majority of Democrats, Kerry supporters and voters aged 18-to-34 support legal same-sex marriage. 54-to-41% oppose a Constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. While a majority of Republicans, Bush supporters and evangelical Christians favored such an amendment, the level of support among those voters was not as great as their opposition to legalizing same-sex marriage. Abortion Rights 71% support abortion rights 22% favored more restrictions on abortion [roughly consistent with survey finding since 1991] Support for abortion rights cut across party lines, ages, sexes and regions of the state. A strong majority of Democrats and backers of the party’s presumptive presidential candidate, John Kerry, said they support a woman’s right to abortion, while a narrower majority of Republicans and supporters of President Bush also said they favored abortion rights. Among religious groups, only evangelical Christians support further restrictions on abortion - and then only by a small plurality: 49-to-42%. A majority of Catholics, Protestants and members of other religious groups support abortion rights. ———— 2005 ———— = CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll Conducted March 18-20, 2005 Reported by the Washington Times, DC, April 2, 2005 443 adults polled Should same-sex marriages be recognized by law with the same rights as traditional marriages: 68% opposed 28% supported 4% no opinion [A similar poll of 466 adults by Gallup in 2004 found that: 55% opposed same-sex marriages 42% should be recognized What marital arrangements should be recognized for same-sex couples: 45% favored neither marriage nor civil unions 27% favored civil unions 20% favored same-sex marriage] Do you favor a constitutional amendment that would define marriage as “between a man and a woman:” 57% supported 37% opposed [A similar poll of 466 adults by Gallup in 2004 found that: 48% favored an amendment 46% opposed] = Global Strategy Group Cpnducted March 2005 Released April 6, 2005 Conducted for Empire State Pride Agenda 600 telephone interviews of registered NY voters Margin of error +-4% Marriage for same-sex couples: 51% support 42% opposed [A similar Global Strategy Group poll conducted for the Pride Agenda in March 2004 found: 47% in support of same-sex marriage 46% opposed] Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships: 72% support 25% oppose Burial Decision-making 83% support 20% oppose Medical Decision-making: 82% support 19% oppose Health Insurance: 80% support 17% oppose Inheritance Rights: 78% support 23% oppose Pension Benefits: 75% support 22% oppose Tax Benefits: 75% support 24% oppose Child Custody Rights: 72% support 19% oppose Amending U.S. Constitution to bar marriage for same-sex couples: 54% oppose 40% support New York Legislature passing a “Defense of Marriage Act” to bar marriage between same-sex couples: 49% oppose 46% support New York State recognizing marriages between same-sex couples legally conducted in other states: 55% support 41% oppose Questions on same-sex marriage decided best by courts or legislature: 38% say legislature 35% say courts Should judges have the right to legalize same-sex marriage: 48% support 41% oppose Support for candidate for public office favoring same-sex marriage: 59% more likely to support or would make no difference 37% less likely to support Support public office candidates favoring civil union/domestic partnership: 70% more likely to support or would make no difference 27% less likely to support = Quinnipiac University Poll Conducted March 28-April 4, 2005 Reported in Newsday April 7, 2005 1,541 Connecticut registered voters by telephone Sampling error +-3% The poll was released the day after the state Senate voted 27-9 in favor of a bill to allow civil unions, which would give gay and lesbian couples many of the same rights as married couples. Civil Unions 56% support Legal Marriage for Same-sex Couples 53% oppose Democrats: Civil Unions 66% support Marriage 53% support Republicans: Civil Unions 45% support 48% opposed Legal Marriage 70% oppose = CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll March 2005 Do you think marriages between homosexuals should or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages? 68% oppose 28% affirm Support for same-sex marriage in March 1996 27% support Support for same-sex marriage in June 2003 39% support = Boston Globe Conducted May 4-May 9, 2005 Released May 15, 2005 Conducted by the University of New Hampshire Survey Center 760 randomly selected U.S. adults Margin of error +-3.6% Should same-sex couples be allowed to have legal marriage? 50% opposed 37% favored Should all 50 states recognize same-sex marriages from Massachusetts? 50% opposed 46% favored Should Civil Unions be offered to provide some, but not all, of the legal rights of married couples? 46% favored 41% opposed Legal marriage for same-sex couples? 18-34-year olds: 39% disapprove 35-49-year olds: 46% disaprove 50-64-year olds: 51% disaprove 65-older: 64% disaprove Will some states join Massachusetts to legalize same-sex marriage? 76% yes Would some, or all states, end up legalizing same-sex marriage? Of those who support legal marriage: 91% yes Of those who do not support legal marriage: 63% yes Sex between people of the same sex is always wrong 41% yes [Down from 58% in a 1998 survey by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago] Should homosexuals be allowed to openly serve in the military? 79% yes [Up from 57% in a 2000 Opinion Dynamics Poll] Do you support an amendment to the U.S. Constitution banning same-sex marriage? 47% opposed 45% supported Do you support state laws banning same-sex marriage? 46% oppose 46% support Should legislatures decide marriage law? (rather than courts) 52% legislatures 29% judges In the Globe survey for those within Massachusetts, “do you favor same-sex legal marriage?” Conducted in February 2004: 53% opposed Conducted in March 2005: 56% favored 34% did not know which state (Massachusetts) had allowed marriage for same-sex couples 21% said they thought no state had legalized it Do you oppose legal marriage for religious or moral reasons? 62% yes = Gallup Poll Conducted May 2-5, 2005. Released May 23, 2005 Margin of error +-5% Two questions compared with their March 2005 survey Released by CNN and USA Today + Do you think marriages between homosexuals should or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages? [492 American adults by telephone] May 2005 March 2005 ------------ ------------ Should be recognized as valid 39% 28% Should not be recognized as valid 56% 68% + Would you favour or oppose a constitutional amendment that would define marriage as being between a man and a woman, thus barring marriages between gay or lesbian couples? [514 American adults by telephone] May 2005 March 2005 ------------ ------------ Favour 53% 57% Oppose 44% 37% = Equality Illinois Conducted June 6-8, 2005 Released June 27, 2005 600 registered Illinois voters by telephone Margin of error +-4% “Do you support or oppose allowing same-sex marriage?” 48% oppose 39% support “Do you support or oppose allowing civil unions?” 53% support 36% oppose = Pew Research Center for People and the Press Released the week of August 15, 2005 In favor of legal recognition for lesbian and gay couples 53% The poll showed support for the freedom to marry, as well as for civil unions and other steps toward marriage itself, increasing among most religious groups, especially among white evangelical Protestants, from 26-percent in December 2004, to 35% today. Polling results show a continuing decline in support for a constitutional amendment to permanently exclude lesbian and gay couples, and their families, from the rights, responsibilities, and protections of marriage. ———— 2006 ———— = Pew Research Center for People and the Press Conducted March 8-12, 2006 Released March 22, 2006 1,405 adults Allowing Gay men and Lesbians to Legally Marry Jun 1996 | Mar 2001 | Jul 2003 | Feb 2004 | Aug 2004 | Jul 2005 | Mar 2006 Oppose 65 57 53 63 60 53 51 Favor 27 35 38 30 29 36 39 Allowing gay parental adoption 1999 | 2006 Oppose 57 48 Favor 38 46 Don’t know 5 6 Gay people openly serving in military 1994 | 2006 Favor 52 60 Oppose 45 32 Don’t know 3 8
From the Pew report:

“Public acceptance of homosexuality has increased in a number of ways in recent years, though it remains a deeply divisive issue. Half of Americans (51%) continue to oppose legalizing gay marriage, but this number has declined significantly from 63% in February 2004, when opposition spiked following the Massachusetts Supreme Court decision and remained high throughout the 2004 election season. Opposition to gay marriage has fallen across the board, with substantial declines even among Republicans.

“These are among the results of the latest national survey by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, conducted among 1,405 adults from March 8-12. The poll also finds less opposition to gays serving openly in the military and a greater public willingness to allow gays to adopt children. A 60% majority now favors allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military, up from 52% in 1994, and 46% support gay adoption, up from 38% in 1999.

“Despite the fact that gay marriage initiatives are on the ballot in seven states this year, the atmosphere surrounding the issue of gay marriage has cooled off, and public intensity has dissipated compared with two years ago. ‘Strong’ opposition to gay marriage, which surged in 2004, has ebbed to a new low. This is particularly the case among seniors, Catholics and nonevangelical Protestants. Among people age 65 and over, for example, strong opposition to gay marriage jumped from 36% in 2003 to 58% in 2004, but has fallen to 33% today. White evangelical Protestants are the only major group in which a majority still strongly opposes gay marriage, but even here the intensity of feeling has receded somewhat.”


= Global Strategy Group
For Empire State Pride Agenda
Conducted March 2006
Released April 10, 2006
658 telephone interviews of prospective NY voters
Margin of error +-3.8%

Marriage equality for gay men and lesbians
   53% support
   38% do not support

[An identical poll in 2004 found:
   47% in favor of marriage equality
   46% against]

Other findings:

Civil Unions and domestic partnerships:
   72% support
   22% oppose

New York Legislature passing a “Defense of Marriage Act”
to bar legal marriage marriage:
   50% oppose
   43% support

New York respecting out-of-state marriages between same-sex couples:
   57% support
   36% oppose

Support for state senator or assemblymember voting to allow marriage:
   26% more likely to support
   42% makes no difference

Support for state senator or assemblymember voting to allow same-sex
couples to form civil unions or domestic partnerships:
   35% more likely to support
   39% makes no difference

Support for state senator or assemblymember voting to discriminate
against same-sex couples by denying them the right to marry:
   45% less likely to support
   30% makes no difference

Courts or legislature should having authority to decide questions
about same-sex marriage:
   47% courts
   40% legislature


= Greenberg Quinlan Rosner
Conducted April 6-9, 2006
Released April 12, 2006
Conducted for Marriage Equality Rhode Island
500 likely November general election voters
Margin of error +-4.4%

Legal marriage:
   45 percent allow
   39 percent oppose

   Breakdown:
      Of those younger than 40:
         67% support legal marriage

Other findings:

Likely to vote for a pro marriage equality candidate:
   44% makes no difference
   25% yes
   22% no

Most important issues the state government should address?
   41% health care
   40% education
   33% taxes
   27% economy
   5% Same-sex marriage

Determining factor for General Assembly candidates:
   73% reforming health care
   70% public education
   62% reducing government spending
   21% marriage equality



= St. Norbert College Survey Center, De Pere, and Wisconsin Public Radio
Conducted March 29-April 7, 2006
Released April 14, 2006
400 polled by phone
Margin of error +=5%

Do you approve of a state constitutional amendment restricting
the definition of marriage to a union between a man and woman:
61% yes
34% no

   [2004 survey
      66% yes
      27% no]

Do you approve of civil unions, granting unmarried couples certain
legal rights such as hospital visitation and insurance coverage:
59% yes
30% no

Do you approve of civil unions between same-sex partners:
48% yes
47% no

Wisconsin residents vote on just such a anti-marriage amendment in November
2006. It also prohibits civil unions with similar benefits as marriage.



= Gallup Poll
Conducted May 8-11, 2006
Released May 31, 2006
1,002 adults, 18 and older, in randomly nationally selected telephone interviews
Maximum sampling error ±3 percentage

Moral acceptability of homosexuality:
51% morally wrong
44% morally acceptable
   74% acceptable among liberal Americans
   18% acceptable among frequent churchgoers
   54% acceptable to those under 40 years old
   32% acceptable to seniors

Perceived Morality of Homosexual Relations
      morally      morally     net
      acceptable   wrong       acceptable
   National adults
      44%          51%          -7%
   Liberal
      74%          23%          +51%
   Seldom/Never worship
      64%          31%          +33%
   Women ages 18 to 49
      55%          41%          +14%
   All 18- to 39-year-olds
      54%          43%          +11%
   Democratic
      52%          45%          +7%
   Moderate
      50%          44%          +6%
   Independent
      50%          44%          +6%
   All 50-to-64-year-olds
      45%          51%          -6%
   Women ages 50 or older
      41%          53%          -12%
   Men ages 18-to-49
      42%          56%          -14%
   Worship nearly weekly
      41%          55%          -14%
   All 40-to-49-year-olds
      40%          58%          -18%
   Men ages 50 or older
      35%          59%          -24%
   All 65-year-olds or older
      32%          61%          -29%
   Republican
      30%          67%          -37%
   Conservative
      28%          69%          -41%
   Worship weekly
      18%          79%          -61%

Groups Consistently Opposing Gay Rights
      homosexual  homosexuality  gay marriage
      relations   is an          should be
      should      acceptable     legally valid
      be legal    alternative
                  *lifestyle
[*Gallup is expressing a prejudice by calling homosexuality a “lifestyle,” rather than an orientation.]
   Worship weekly  
      31%          33%          20%
   Conservative
      36%          37%          18%
   Republican
      37%          38%          19%
   All 65-year-olds or older
      34%          38%          27%
   Men ages 50 or older
      48%          47%          32%
   All 40- to 49-year-olds
      49%          44%          33%

Groups Consistently Supporting Gay Rights
      homosexual  homosexuality  gay marriage
      relations   is an          should be
      should      acceptable     legally valid
      be legal    alternative
                  *lifestyle
[*Gallup is expressing a prejudice by calling homosexuality a “lifestyle,” rather than an orientation.]
   Liberal
      82%          77%          73%
   Seldom/Never worship
      71%          67%          51%
   Women ages 18 to 49
      62%          62%          55%
   All 18- to 39-year-olds
      63%          62%          51%
   Democratic
      64%          64%          53%

Groups with Mixed Support for Gay Rights
      homosexual  homosexuality  gay marriage
      relations   is an          should be
      should      acceptable     legally valid
      be legal    alternative
                  *lifestyle
[*Gallup is expressing a prejudice by calling homosexuality a “lifestyle,” rather than an orientation.]
   Moderate
      68%          66%          47%
   Independent
      65%          59%          45%
   All 50- to 64-year-olds
      56%          54%          37%
   Women ages 50 or older
      53%          54%          32%
   Men ages 18 to 49
      53%          48%          31%
   Worship nearly weekly/monthly
      57%          54%          44%

“According to Gallup trends, public support for gay rights
expanded considerably over the past three decades. This
is seen in the percentage considering homosexuality an
acceptable lifestyle, growing from 34% in 1982 to a majority
by 2001. However, there has been little change in this over
the last few years.

“The same pattern is seen in attitudes about whether homosexual
men and women should have equal rights in the workplace. Only
56% of Americans favored equal job rights for gays in 1977.
This reached 88% in 2003 and has remained at about that level
ever since.

“Even if people’s current views remain fixed, if the views of
the next generation of young adults are at least as supportive
of gay rights as are today’s young adults, then the nation’s
moral compass is destined to shift even further than it has
already in the direction of gay acceptance.

“Young adults (18- to 39-year-olds) are the only age group
where a majority considers homosexuality morally acceptable,
and as a result they generally favor legal recognition for gay
marriages. By contrast, barely one-quarter of seniors and only
about one-third of middle-aged adults endorse this policy.”



= Public Policy Institute of California
Conducted September 13-20, 2006
Released September 29, 2006
2,003 California adults poled on a wide range of issues by telephone
Sampling error ±2 percentage

Do you favor or oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples
to be legally married?
   48% oppose
   44% favor
   8% don’t know

Breakdown:
   Republicans
      66% oppose
      27% favor
   Democrats
      35% oppose
      58% favor
   independents
      43% oppose
      49% favor


= New York Times / CBS News
Conducted October 27-31, 2006
Released November 5, 2006
Telephone interviews with 1,084 American adults
Margin of error 4 per cent

Same-sex Marriage
28%
   (23% in February 2005 poll)

Civil Unions
29%
   (34% in February 2005 poll)

No Legal Recognition
38% 
   (41% in February 2005 poll)

Not Sure
5%
   (2% in February 2005 poll)



———— 2007 ————


= Princeton Survey Research Associates / Newsweek
Released by Angus Reid Global Monitor, March 23, 2007
Telephone interviews with 1,001 American adults
Conducted March 14-16, 2007
Margin of error 4 per cent

Do you support full marriage rights for same-sex
couples; support civil unions or partnerships for
same-sex couples, but not full marriage rights, or
do you oppose any legal recognition for same-sex couples?

March 2007
----------
[Marriage and Civil Union support combines to 50%]
Marriage: 26%
Civil unions: 24%
No legal recognition: 44%
Not sure: 6%

Previous survey - October 2006
----------
[Marriage and Civil Union support combines to 50%]
Civil unions: 26%
Marriage: 24%
No legal recognition: 40%
Not sure: 10%

Do you think gays and lesbians should or should
not be able to serve openly in the military?
March 2007
----------
Should: 63%
Should not: 28%
Don’t know: 9%

Previous survey - February 2004
----------
Should: 60%
Should not: 29%
Don’t know: 11%



———— 2008 ————


= Senator Dolye’s Poll
Opinion surveys taken on Vermont’s Town Meeting Day
March 11, 2008
Nearly 7,000 Vermonters

Do you favor same-sex marriage?
54% support allowing same-sex couples to marry
40% opposed
6% no oppinion

This is an 8% increase in support for same-sex marriage since last year.

The poll results are compiled by noted Johnson State College political
science professor and state senator William Doyle (Washington County),
who has run the poll since 1969. The Doyle poll is not considered a
scientific survey, but an annual sampling of views by voters taking
part in Town Meeting Day, a 200-year-old tradition.



= Gallup Poll
May 8-11, 2008
1,017 adults nationwide
margin of error ± 3 percent (for all adults)

"Do you think marriages between same-sex couples should
or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with
the same rights as traditional marriages?"
(Form A - 513 adults, margin of error ± 5 percent)
   40 percent Should
   56 percent Should Not
   4 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - May 10-13, 2007
      46 percent Should
      53 percent Should Not
      1 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - May 8-11, 2006
      42 percent Should
      56 percent Should Not
      2 percent Unsure
	
"Would you favor or oppose a constitutional amendment that
would define marriage as being between a man and a woman,
thus barring marriages between gay or lesbian couples?"
(Form B - 504 adults, margin of error ± 5 percent)
   49 percent Favor
   48 percent Oppose
   3 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - May 8-11, 2006
      50 percent Favor
      47 percent Oppose
      3 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - April 29-May 1, 2005
      53 percent Favor
      44 percent Oppose
      3 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - March 18-20, 2005
      57 percent Favor
      37 percent Oppose
      6 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 19-21, 2004
      48 percent Favor
      46 percent Oppose
      6 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - May 2-4, 2004
      51 percent Favor
      45 percent Oppose
      4 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - March 5-7, 2004
      50 percent Favor
      45 percent Oppose
      5 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - February 9-12, 2004
      53 percent Favor
      44 percent Oppose
      3 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - February 6-8, 2004
      47 percent Favor
      47 percent Oppose
      6 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 2003
      50 percent Favor
      45 percent Oppose
      5 percent Unsure

"Thinking about how the gay marriage issue might affect your
vote for major offices, would you only vote for a candidate
who shares your views on gay marriage, consider a candidate's
position on gay marriage as just one of many important factors
when voting, or would you not see gay marriage as a major issue?"
   16 percent Must Share Views
   49 percent One of Many Factors
   33 percent Not a Major Issue
   2 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - 5/2-4/04
      16 percent Must Share Views
      46 percent One of Many Factors
      35 percent Not a Major Issue
      3 percent Unsure



= Pew Research Center survey
Conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International
May 21-25, 2008
1,505 adults nationwide
Margin of error ± 3 percent
July 2006 survey conducted by SRBI

Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose
allowing gay and lesbian couples to enter into legal
agreements with each other that would give them many
of the same rights as married couples?"
   51 percent Favor
   41 percent Oppose
   8 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 6-19, 2006
      54 percent Favor
      42 percent Oppose
      4 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 13-17, 2005
      53 percent Favor
      40 percent Oppose
      7 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - August 5-10, 2004
      48 percent Favor
      45 percent Oppose
      7 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 2004
      49 percent Favor
      43 percent Oppose
      8 percent Unsure
	  	
   earlier poll - March 2004
      49 percent Favor
      44 percent Oppose
      7 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - October 2003
      45 percent Favor
      47 percent Oppose
      8 percent Unsure



= Field Poll
Released May 28, 2008 in the San Francisco Chronicle
Telephone survey of 1,052 registered voters - polled May 17-26, 2008
Margin of error is plus or minus 3.2 percentage points

Should same-sex marriage should be legal in California?
   51 percent support
   42 percent oppose

Among 18-29 year-old voters: 68 percent support same-sex marriage

Among 65-and-older voters: 36 percent support same-sex marriage

Heavily Democratic urban areas:
   55 percent of Los Angeles County support
   68 percent of the Bay Area support
   38 percent of the Central Valley support
   41 percent of Southern California outside of Los Angeles support

55 percent of coastal voters support same-sex marriage
40 percent inland voters support same-sex marriage

85 percent of strong liberals support same-sex marriage
85 percent of strong conservatives oppose same-sex marriage

Protestants, who make up a third of the state's voters:
   34 percent support
   57 percent oppose

Catholics:
   45 percent support
   48 percent oppose

No religious preference:
   81 percent support
   12 percent oppose

Should the state constitution be changed to ban same-sex marriage?
   51 percent oppose
   43 percent support

A 2006 Field Poll showed that half the state’s
voters still disapproved of same-sex marriage.

Only 28 percent favored same-sex marriage in 1977,
when the Field Poll first asked that question.



CBS News Poll
May 30-June 3, 2008
1,038 adults nationwide. margin of error ± 4 (for all adults)

"Which comes closest to your view? Gay couples should be
allowed to legally marry. OR, Gay couples should be allowed
to form civil unions but not legally marry. OR, There should
be no legal recognition of a gay couple's relationship."
						
   All adults
      30 percent Legal Marriage
      28 percent Civil Unions
      36 percent No Legal Recognition
      6 percent Unsure 	

   Men
      24 percent Legal Marriage
      30 percent Civil Unions
      41 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   Women
      36 percent Legal Marriage
      26 percent Civil Unions
      32 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   18-29 year olds
      40 percent Legal Marriage
      28 percent Civil Unions
      29 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   30-44 year olds
      31percent Legal Marriage
      29 percent Civil Unions
      36 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   45-64 year olds
      30 percent Legal Marriage
      28 percent Civil Unions
      35 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   65 and older
      17 percent Legal Marriage
      26 percent Civil Unions
      48 percent No Legal Recognition
      - percent Unsure 	

   Republicans
      14 percent Legal Marriage
      32 percent Civil Unions
      50 percent No Legal Recognition
      4 percent Unsure 	

   Democrats
      36 percent Legal Marriage
      27 percent Civil Unions
      32 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure 	

   Independents
      34 percent Legal Marriage
      26 percent Civil Unions
      31 percent No Legal Recognition
      9 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - March 7-11, 2007
      28 percent Legal Marriage
      32 percent Civil Unions
      35 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - October 27-31, 2006
      28 percent Legal Marriage
      29 percent Civil Unions
      38 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - June 2006
      27 percent Legal Marriage
      30 percent Civil Unions
      40 percent No Legal Recognition
      3 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - February 24-28, 2005
      23 percent Legal Marriage
      34 percent Civil Unions
      41 percent No Legal Recognition
      2 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - November 18-21, 2004
      21 percent Legal Marriage
      32 percent Civil Unions
      44 percent No Legal Recognition
      3 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - July 11-15, 2004
      28 percent Legal Marriage
      31 percent Civil Unions
      38 percent No Legal Recognition
      3 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - May 20-23, 2004
      28 percent Legal Marriage
      29 percent Civil Unions
      40 percent No Legal Recognition
      3 percent Unsure 	

   earlier poll - all adults - March 10-14, 2004
      22 percent Legal Marriage
      33 percent Civil Unions
      40 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure 	



= Newsweek Poll
Conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International
June 18-19, 2008
896 registered voters nationwide
Margin of error ± 4 percent (for all registered voters)

There has been much talk recently about whether states should give
gay and lesbian couples the legal right to marry. Which of the
following comes CLOSEST to your position on this issue? Do you
support FULL marriage rights for same-sex couples, OR support civil
unions or partnerships for same-sex couples, BUT NOT full marriage
rights, OR do you oppose ANY legal recognition for same-sex couples?"

   All registered voters
      30 percent Full Marriage Rights
      27 percent Civil Unions/Partnerships
      37 percent No Legal Recognition
      6 percent Unsure

   Republicans
      12 percent Full Marriage Rights
      28 percent Civil Unions/Partnerships
      55 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure

   Democrats
      42 percent Full Marriage Rights
      23 percent Civil Unions/Partnerships
      28 percent No Legal Recognition
      7 percent Unsure

   Independents
      30 percent Full Marriage Rights
      33 percent Civil Unions/Partnerships
      32 percent No Legal Recognition
      5 percent Unsure



= Pew Research Center survey
Conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International
June 18-29, 2008
2,004 adults nationwide
Margin of error ± 2.5 percent
						
"Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose
allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry legally?"
   40 percent Favor
   52 percent Oppose
   8 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - May 21-25, 2008
      38 percent Favor
      49 percent Oppose
      13 percent Unsure



= Quinnipiac University Poll
July 8-13, 2008
1,783 registered voters nationwide
margin of error ± 2.3 percent
						
"In general, do you support or oppose same-sex marriage?"
   36 percent Support
   55 percent Oppose
   9 percent Unsure

"Which would you prefer? Do you think same-sex couples should
be allowed legally to marry, should be allowed legally to
form civil unions but not marry, or should not be allowed
to obtain legal recognition of their relationships?"
   32 percent Legally Marry
   33 percent Form Civil Unions
   29 percent No Legal Recognition
   6 percent Unsure

"Do you think states should give legal recognition to
same-sex marriages performed in other states or not?"
   44 percent Should
   50 percent Should Not
   6 percent Unsure

Would you support or oppose a law in your state
that would ban same-sex marriage?"
   45 percent Support
   49 percent Oppose
   6 percent Unsure

"Would you support or oppose amending the United
States Constitution to ban same-sex marriage?"
   38 percent Support
   53 percent Oppose
   6 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - November 13-19, 2006
      43 percent Support
      53 percent Oppose
      4 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - December 7-12, 2004
      43 percent Support
      53 percent Oppose
      4 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - July 18-22, 2004
      39 percent Support
      55 percent Oppose
      6 percent Unsure

   earlier poll - Maerch 16-22, 2004
      41 percent Support
      51 percent Oppose
      8 percent Unsure



= Time Poll
Conducted by Abt SRBI
July 31-August 4, 2008
808 likely voters nationwide
Margin of error ± 3 perecent

"Should gay and lesbian couples be allowed to marry,
giving them full legal rights of married couples, or not?"
   47 percent Should
   47 percent Should Not
   7 percent No Answer/Unsure

   earlier poll - from June 18-25, 2008
      42 percent Should
      51 percent Should Not
      7 percent No Answer/Unsure

"Do you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution
that would ban same-sex couples from getting married?"
   35 percent Favor
   58 percent Oppose
   7 percent No Answer/Unsure

   earlier poll - from June 18-25, 2008
      36 percent Favor
      58 percent Oppose
      6 percent No Answer/Unsure

"What if a presidential candidate took a position on gay marriage
that was different from your own? Would you still consider voting
for him because of his position on other issues, or would you not
vote for him under any circumstances?"
   72 percent Still Consider
   22 percent Not Vote For
   6 percent No Answer/Unsure

   earlier poll - from June 18-25, 2008
      72 percent Still Consider
      22 percent Not Vote For
      6 percent No Answer/Unsure



———— 2009 ————


= University of New Hampshire Survey Center
Surveyed 491 New Hampshire voters, April 13-22, 2009
Released April 28, 2009

marriage for lesbian and gay couples
55% support
39% oppose

support marriage
63% Independent voters
34% Republican voters

only 32% would be “bothered” if gay and lesbians could get a marriage license



= Washington Post-ABC News poll
Telephone sample of 1,1,072 adults from April 21-24, 2009
Included landline and cell-phone-only respondents and an oversample of
African-Americans (weighted to their correct share of the national population)
Margin of error ± 3 perecent
Released April 30, 2009

Do you think it should be legal or illegal for (gay and lesbian/homosexual)*
couples to get married?
[*In 2009 the terms "gay and lesbian" and "homosexual" were used.
  In 2006 only the term "homosexual" was used.]

           Legal NET   Strongly legal
All             49             31

Democrat        62             43
Republican      22             14
Independent     52             30

Liberal         71             54
Moderate        54             31
Conservative    30             16

Lib. Democrat   71             57
Con. Republican 16             10

White Catholic  46             27
Wh. Ev/Prot     20             11

Education:
Non-college     45             28
College+        57             38

18-29           66             45
30-64           48             29
65+             28             16

Strong support for legal same-sex marriage has grown among Democrats
(from 26 percent in 2004 to 33 percent in 2006 to 43 percent now) and overall
support within the party has climbed nearly 20 points from 44 percent to 62 percent.

Among Republicans, about one-in-five support legal samesex marriages (22 percent)
with three-quarters opposed (74 percent), largely unchanged from 2006.

Three-in-10 conservatives said gay marriage should be legal, the highest
proportion in Post-ABC polling, up from 19 percent in 2006, and strong
opposition to the practice dipped from 72 percent in 2006 to 56 percent now.
Conservative Republicans (83 percent oppose, 73 percent strongly) and white
evangelical Protestants (75 percent oppose, 68 percent strongly)
continue to be staunch opponents.

In the political middle, majorities of independents and moderates now support
legal same-sex marriage (52 percent among independents and 54 percent of moderates)
with about three-in-10 in each group strongly in favor of legal same-sex marriages.
Although overall opposition is lower (about four-in-10 for each group), strong
opposition is at about the same level as strong support.

White Catholics have become more liberal on the issue. In June 2006, 33 percent of
white Catholics said it should be legal, 60 percent illegal, that has evened out
to 46 percent legal, 47 percent illegal in the new poll.

While support for same-sex marriage among seniors has grown somewhat
(15 percent said it should be legal in 2006 compared with 28 percent now)
six-in-10 remain strongly opposed to same-sex marriages. Among those under
age 30, two-thirds (66 percent) support it generally; 45 percent in this age
group strongly support the practice, 21 percent are strongly opposed.

In 2006, 28 percent of those without a college degree said gay marriage should be legal,
compared with 45 percent of those who had completed college, a 17-point divide.
Now, the gap stands at 12, with 45 percent of non-college adults in favor of legal marriage
with 57 percent of college grads in the same camp.



———— 2009 ————


= CNN Opinion Research Poll
Interviews with 1,009 adult Americans, including 935 registered voters
conducted by telephone by Opinion Research Corporation on August 6-10, 2010
Released August 11, 2010
margin of sampling error: +-3 percent
margin of sampling error for registered voters: +-3 percent

Do you think gays and lesbians have a constitutional right to get married
and have their marriage recognized by law as valid?
(ASKED OF HALF SAMPLE. RESULTS BASED ON 513 INTERVIEWS IN VERSION A -- sampling error: +-4.5 percent)
             August 6-10, 2010       May 14-17, 2009
Yes          49%                     45%
No           51%                     54%
No opinion   less than 1%             1%

                      Total    Men    Women    White    Non-White
      Yes             49%      45%    52%      50%      N/A
      No              51%      55%    48%      50%      N/A
      No opinion        *        *      *        *      N/A
      Sampling Error  ±4.5     ±6.0   ±6.0     ±5.0

                      Total   18-34   35-49   50-64   Under50  65+   50 and Older
      Yes             49%     N/A     N/A     39%     36%      58%   38%
      No              51%     N/A     N/A     61%     64%      42%   62%
      No opinion      *       N/A     N/A     *       *        *     *
      Sampling Error  ±4.5    ±7.0    ±8.5    ±7.5    ±5.5

                      Total   Under $50K   $50K or more   No College   Attended College
      Yes             49%     50%          47%            48%          49%
      No              51%     49%          52%            51%          51%
      No opinion      *       *            *              *            *
      Sampling Error  ±4.5    ±6.5         ±6.5           ±7.0         ±5.5

                       Total  Democrat  Independent  Republican  Liberal  Moderate  Conservative
      Yes              49%    56%       57%          27%         N/A      55%       27%
      No               51%    44%       43%          73%         N/A      44%       73%
      No opinion       *      *         *             1%         N/A       1%       *
      Sampling Error   ±4.5   ±7.5      ±7.5         ±8.0        ±.0      ±6.5

                       Total  Northeast  Midwest  South  West  Urban  Suburban  Rural
      Yes              49%    N/A        N/A      43%    N/A   N/A    54%       36%
      No               51%    N/A        N/A      57%    N/A   N/A    46%       64%
      No opinion       *      N/A        N/A      *      N/A   N/A    *         *
      Sampling Error   ±4.5   ±7.5       ±6.5     ±7.5

      * less than 1%

Do you think gays and lesbians should have a constitutional right to get married
and have their marriage recognized by law as valid?
(ASKED OF HALF SAMPLE. RESULTS BASED ON 496 INTERVIEWS IN VERSION B -- sampling error: ±4.5 percent)
             Aug. 6-10, 2010
Yes          52%
No           46%
No opinion   2%

                      Total    Men    Women    White    Non-White
      Yes             52%      37%    67%      53%      N/A
      No              46%      61%    32%      46%      N/A
      No opinion       2%       2%     1%       1%      N/A
      Sampling Error  ±4.5     ±6.0   ±6.0     ±5.0

                      Total   18-34   35-49   50-64   Under50  65+   50 and Older
      Yes             52%     N/A     N/A     44%     36%      61%   41%
      No              46%     N/A     N/A     52%     60%      39%   56%
      No opinion       2%     N/A     N/A      4%      4%      *      4%
      Sampling Error  ±4.5    ±8.0    ±7.5    ±7.5    ±5.5

                      Total   Under $50K   $50K or more   No College   Attended College
      Yes             52%     54%          54%            45%          58%
      No              46%     44%          46%            52%          41%
      No opinion       2%      2%           1%             2%           1%
      Sampling Error  ±4.5    ±7.0         ±6.5           ±8.0         ±5.5

                       Total  Democrat  Independent  Republican  Liberal  Moderate  Conservative
      Yes              52%    67%       55%          32%         N/A      63%       30%
      No               46%    32%       42%          66%         N/A      36%       68%
      No opinion        2%     1%        3%           1%         N/A       1%        2%
      Sampling Error   ±4.5   ±8.0      ±7.0         ±8.0        ±7.5     ±6.5

                       Total  Northeast  Midwest  South  West  Urban  Suburban  Rural
      Yes              52%    N/A        N/A      42%    N/A   N/A    56%       51%
      No               46%    N/A        N/A      57%    N/A   N/A    44%       48%
      No opinion        2%    N/A        N/A       1%    N/A   N/A     1%        2%
      Sampling Error   ±4.5   ±7.5       ±6.5     ±7.0

      * less than 1%



= The Field Poll
Survey run June 22–July 5, 2010
Interviewing was conducted by phone among a representative sample of 1,390 registered California voters.
To more closely examine the preferences of California’s growing ethnic voter populations,
the survey was conducted in English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean and Vietnamese.
In addition, the main statewide sample was supplemented with additional interviews among
Chinese Americans, Korean Americans and Vietnamese Americans.
The maximum error based on the overall registered voter sample is ±2.8 percent (95% confidence level)

Approve/disapprove trend of California opinion about allowing same-sex couples to marry
and having regular marriage laws apply to them (among registered voters)

             2010   2009   2008   2006   2004   2003   1997   1985   1977
Approve      51%    49%    51%    44%    44%    42%    38%    30%    28%
Disapprove   42%    44%    42%    50%    50%    50%    56%    62%    59%
No opinion    7%     7%     7%     6%     6%     8%     6%     8%    13%

Note: Surveys conducted prior to 2003 were conducted among all California adults, not just registered voters.

      July 2010 - California voter preferences regarding allowing same-sex couples to marry
      and have regular marriage laws apply to them – by subgroup (among registered voters)

                                          Approve  Disapprove  No Opinion
      Total – July 2010                   51%      42%          7%
      Party
        Democrats                         68%      27%          5%
        Republicans                       26%      66%          8%
        Non-partisans/others              52%      38%         10%
      Region
        Los Angeles County                51%      38%         11%
        San Diego/Orange                  45%      51%          4%
        Other Southern California         49%      43%          8%
        Central Valley                    42%      51%          7%
        San Francisco Bay Area            63%      29%          8%
        Other Northern California*        42%      51%          7%
            *Small sample base
      Age
        18–29                             68%      27%          5%
        30–39                             53%      38%          9%
        40–49                             47%      41%         12%
        50–64                             46%      48%          6%
        65 or older                       42%      51%          7%
      Gender
        Male                              47%      45%          8%
        Female                            54%      39%          7%
      Race/ethnicity
        White non-Hispanic                53%      39%          8%
        Latino                            50%      41%          9%
        African-American                  38%      49%         13%
        Chinese-American                  41%      54%          5%
        Korean-American                   25%      70%          5%
        Vietnamese-American               32%      64%          4%
      Marital status
        Married                           46%      47%          7%
        Separated/divorced                46%      44%         10%
        Never married                     67%      25%          8%
      Religion
        Protestant                        34%      57%          9%
        Catholic                          47%      46%          7%
        Other religion                    75%      20%          5%
        No religious preference           77%      16%          7%
      Likely voters in November
                                (total)   50%      43%          7%
        Brown supporters for Governor     74%      20%          6%
        Whitman supporters for Governor   26%      66%          8%
        Boxer supporters for US Senate    73%      21%          6%
        Fiorina supporters for US Senate  26%      66%          8%

Three option trends of California voter opinion about what state laws should be
regarding same-sex relationships (among registered voters)

                                     July 2010  March 2009  May 2008  February 2006
Allow to marry                       44%        45%         45%       36%
Allow civil unions but not marriage  34%        34%         32%       33%
No legal recognition                 19%        19%         19%       27%
No opinion                            3%         2%         4%         4%

      July 2010 - California voter preferences offering three options about what should
      be done about same-sex marriage laws – by subgroup (among registered voters)

                                          Allow     Allow civil unions  No legal          
                                          to marry  not marriage        recognition  No opinion 	
      Total – July 2010                   44%       34%                 19%           3%
      Party
        Democrats                         59%       23%                 15%           3%
        Republicans                       19%       49%                 29%           3%
        Non-partisans/others              46%       35%                 16%           3%
      Region
        Los Angeles County                44%       30%                 21%           5%
        San Diego/Orange                  38%       37%                 21%           4%
        Other Southern California         42%       32%                 23%           3%
        Central Valley                    36%       37%                 24%           3%
        San Francisco Bay Area            53%       35%                 11%           1%
        Other Northern California*        49%       34%                 10%           7%
            *Small sample base
      Age
        18–29                             65%       23%                  9%           3%
        30–39                             46%       37%                 16%           1%
        40–49                             42%       34%                 21%           4%
        50–64                             34%       39%                 23%           4%
        65 or older                       35%       35%                 25%           5%
      Gender
        Male                              42%       35%                 20%           3%
        Female                            45%       33%                 18%           4%
      Race/ethnicity
        White non-Hispanic                47%       35%                 16%           2%
        Latino                            40%       32%                 22%           6%
        African-American                  32%       33%                 27%           8%
        Chinese-American                  33%       32%                 31%           4%
        Korean-American                   24%       32%                 43%           1%
        Vietnamese-American               24%       19%                 55%           2%
      Likely voters in November
                                (total)   43%       35%                 19%           3%
        Brown supporters for Governor     65%       20%                 10%           5%
        Whitman supporters for Governor   21%       51%                 27%           1%
        Boxer supporters for US Senate    64%       21%                 11%           4%
        Fiorina supporters for US Senate  20%       51%                 26%           3%
      Marital status
        Married                           39%       36%                 22%           3%
        Separated/divorced                38%       34%                 22%           6%
        Never married                     62%       27%                  9%           2%
      Religion
        Protestant                        27%       43%                 24%           6%
        Catholic                          35%       39%                 24%           2%
        Other religion                    69%       19%                 10%           2%
        No religious preference           75%       14%                  8%           3%


We welcome additional information with verifying citations.
© 2011, Demian
None of the pages on this Web site may be reproduced by any form of reproduction without
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Companion Survey Articles

Governments that offer Full Legal Marriage
Nations

        Netherlands (2001)
        Belgium (2003)
        Canada (2005)
        Spain (2005)
        South Africa (2005)
        Norway (2009)
        Sweden (2009)
        Mexico City (Mexico) (2009)
        Iceland (2010)
        Argentina (2010)
        Portugal (2010)
        France (2013)
        New Zealand (2013)
US States and Territories

        Massachusetts (2004)
        California offered then banned; case pending (2008/?)
        Connecticut (2008)
        Iowa (2009)
        Vermont (2009)
        New Hampshire (2009)
        District of Columbia (2009)
        New York (2011)
        Maine (2012)
        Washington (2012)
        Maryland (2013)
        Rhode Island (2013)
        Delaware (2013)
        Minnesota (2013)
        Illinois (2013)
        Utah (2013)
Native American Tribes

        Coquille Tribe in OR (2008)
        Suquamish Tribe in WA (2011)
        Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians in MI (2013)

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